Author Guidelines

Preparing for submission Submitted manuscripts should follow the recommendations stated in Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Please review these guidelines.

In his/her covering letter, the corresponding author should reveal whether the submitted article – or very similar work - has been previously published, or is under consideration elsewhere.

Please note that the submitting author will be the principal contact for editorial correspondence, throughout the peer review and proofreading process, if applicable.

Plagiarism Detection Co-Action Publishing is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content.

Co-Action Publishing uses iThenticate to screen all submissions for plagiarism before publication, but authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting


Language All articles should be written in English - British or American as long as consistency is observed. SI units should be used. Please subject the manuscript to professional language editing before submitting the final version if you are not a native speaker. A list of services can be found here.

Conflict of interest and funding Authors are responsible for disclosing all relationships that could be viewed as potential conflicts of interest. Please refer to the ICMJE statement on conflicts of interest (


WAIVER POLICY - please see here.

WITHDRAWAL OF MANUSCRIPT If you withdraw your manuscript after it has been peer reviewed, or after it has been typeset (but not yet published) you will be charged according to the following:

For peer review: EUR 225/USD 240 per article
For peer review and typesetting: EUR 395/USD 425 per article

Ethics and consent When reporting experiments on patients or animals, please indicate whether the procedures followed were approved by your local ethics committee and/or in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (

Acknowledgements List all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under a heading such as ‘clinical investigators’ or ‘participating investigators’ and their function or contribution should be described.

Manuscript layout Wherever possible, the paper should follow the traditional layout. Begin each section, including figure and table legends, on separate sheets; insert running page numbers.

Title page Organize the title page in the following way: 1) title of manuscript, 2) name of author(s), 3) name of department(s) and institution(s), and 4) name and fullpostal address of the corresponding author who also acts as 'Guarantor' for all parts of the paper.

The title should be informative and accurate and at the same time trigger the interest of the reader. A short running head will be derived from the title to appear on each page of the paper.

Figures Upon acceptance please supply figures/graphics/images in at least 300 dpi. For further information please see guidelines.

If the figures/graphics/images have been taken from sources not copyrighted by the author, it is the author’s sole responsibility to secure the rights from the copyright holder to reproduce those figures/graphs/images for both worldwide print and web publication. All reproduction costs charged by the copyright holder must be borne by the author.
When figures/graphics/images are reproduced, a parenthesis should be added to the figure legend thus: (Reproduced with permission from xxx.)

Abstract Articles must include an abstract of 200-300 words providing sufficient information for a reader to be able to decide whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5-10 key words; avoid using the same words as in the title.

Section headings Please do not number section headings. Use a maximum of three levels of headings made clear by orthographic indicators, i.e. capitals, italics, bold etc.

References system References should follow the standard biomedical format (so-called Vancouver style).

Number the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals and in parentheses, e.g. (14).The references should be listed at the end of the manuscript as regular text.

Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as 'unpublished observation(s)' or 'personal communication'.

For a key of how to abbreviate medical journal names, please consult the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus accessible at

Review Articles - comprehensive, authoritative descriptions and summaries of a specific subject area providing a systematic and substantial overview of the field

Headings: Introduction, Methods (if applicable), Results and discussion (if applicable, otherwise Discussion only), Conclusions.

Word limit: 5000 words. Numbers of figures and tables: Unlimited


1. Jamrozik K, Vessey M, Fowler G, Wald N, Parker G, van Nunakis H. Controlled trial of three different antismoking interventions in general practice. Br Med J. 1985; 288:1499-503.

2. Smith BJ, Laslett LL, Pile PJ, Phillips PJ, Phillipov G, Evans SM et al. Randomized controlled trial of alendronate in airways disease and low bone mineral density. Chron Respir Dis.  2004;1:131-7.

 3. Flatscher-Bader T, Foldi CJ, Chong S, Whitelaw E, Moser RJ, Burne THJ, et al. Increased de novo copy number variants in the offspring of older males. Translational Psychiatry 2011. 1 doi:10.1038/tp.2011.30.


1. Crandall BC, Lewis J, editors. Nanotechnology: research and perspectives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1992.

2. Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel JR, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.

3. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2003: Shaping the Future. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003. 

4. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Executive Summary. 2006. Available from URL: https:\\ (accessed November 21, 2013).