Author Guidelines

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Preparing for submission Submitted manuscripts should follow the recommendations stated in Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Please review these guidelines.

In his/her covering letter, the corresponding author should reveal whether the submitted article – or very similar work - has been previously published, or is under consideration elsewhere.

Please note that the submitting author will be the principal contact for editorial correspondence, throughout the peer review and proofreading process, if applicable.

Plagiarism Detection Co-Action Publishing is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content.

Co-Action Publishing uses iThenticate to screen all submissions for plagiarism before publication, but authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting http://research.ithenticate.com.


Language All articles should be written in English - British or American - as long as consistency is observed. SI units should be used. Please subject the manuscript to professional language editing before submitting the final version if you are not a native speaker. A list of services can be found here.

All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Conflict of interest and funding Authors are responsible for disclosing all relationships that could be viewed as potential conflicts of interest. Please refer to the ICMJE statement on conflicts of interest (http://www.icmje.org/journals-following-the-icmje-recommendations/) and please complete this form and attach to submission.

Ethics and consent When reporting experiments on patients or animals, please indicate whether the procedures followed were approved by your local ethics committee and/or in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf).

Authors' contributions - required The individual contributions of each author must be specified in the Authors' contributions section. Please use authors' initials and confirm that all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Authorship
It is understood that all authors listed on submitted manuscripts have read and agreed to its content, and meet the authorship requirements as detailed by ICMJE here. In brief, contributors can be listed as authors if they: 1) have made substantial contributions to the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; AND 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgements section, see below. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help or writing assistance, or a head of department, who provided only general support.

Acknowledgements List all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under a heading such as ‘clinical investigators’ or ‘participating investigators’ and their function or contribution should be described.

Publication fee See here.

WAIVER POLICY - please see here.

WITHDRAWAL OF MANUSCRIPT If you withdraw your manuscript after it has been peer reviewed, or after it has been typeset (but not yet published) you will be charged according to the following:

For peer review: EUR 225/USD 240 per article
For peer review and typesetting: EUR 395/USD 425 per article

Manuscript layout Wherever possible, the paper should follow the traditional layout. Begin each section, including figure and table legends, on separate sheets; insert running page numbers.

Title page Organize the title page in the following way: 1) title of manuscript, 2) name of all author(s), 3) name of department(s) and institution(s), 4) email addresses of all authors (listed by authors’ initials) and 5) name and full postal and email address of the corresponding author who also acts as 'Guarantor' for all parts of the paper. Please observe that the journal adheres to a 'double blind' review process and thus the title page revealing the identity of the authors should be uploaded separately. Please see Ensuring a Blind Review.

The title should be informative and accurate and at the same time trigger the interest of the reader. A short running head will be derived from the title to appear on each page of the article.

Abstract Articles must include an abstract of 200-300 words providing sufficient information for a reader to be able to decide whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5-10 key words; avoid using the same words as in the title.

Section headings Please do not number section headings. Use a maximum of three levels of headings made clear by orthographic indicators, i.e. capitals, italics, bold etc.

References system References should follow the standard biomedical format (so-called Vancouver style).

Number the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals and in parentheses, e.g. (14).The references should be listed at the end of the manuscript as regular text.

Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as 'unpublished observation(s)' or 'personal communication'.

For a key of how to abbreviate medical journal names, please consult the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus accessible at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=journals.

Figures and tables For guidelines on how to prepare tables, figures and supplementary material please see here.

Journals

1. Nisbet MC, Lewenstein BV. Biotechnology and the American media: the policy process and the elite press, 1970 to 1999. Sci Commun. 2002;23:359-91.

2. Wilkinson C, Allan S, Anderson A, Petersen A. From uncertainty to risk?: Scientific and news media portrayals of nanoparticle safety. Health Risk Soc. 2007;38:145-57.

3. Cruzan G, Corley RA, Hard GC, Mertens JJ, McMartin KE, Snellings WM, et al. Subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol in Wistar and F-344 rats related to metabolism and clearance of metabolites. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:502-11.

Books

Gamson WA. Talking politics. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1992.

Einsiedel EF, Goldenberg L. Dwarfing the social? Nanotechnology lessons from the biotechnology front. In: Hunt G, Mehta M, editors. Nanotechnology: risk, ethics, and law. London, UK: Earthscan; 2006. p. 213-21.

Websites

European Commission. Nanotechnology. 2009 [updated 2009; cited 2010 May 3]; Available from: http://cordis.europa.eu/nanotechnology/.