Author Guidelines

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Preparing for submission Submitted manuscripts should follow the recommendations stated in Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals.

In his/her covering letter, the corresponding author should reveal whether the submitted article – or very similar work - has been previously published, or is under consideration elsewhere.

Please note that the submitting author will be the principal contact for editorial correspondence, throughout the peer review and proofreading process, if applicable.

Plagiarism Detection Co-Action Publishing is a member of CrossCheck by CrossRef and iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and billions of web content.

Co-Action Publishing uses iThenticate to screen all submissions for plagiarism before publication, but authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting

Language All articles should be written in English - British or American as long as consistency is observed. SI units should be used. Please subject the manuscript to professional language editing before submitting the final version if you are not a native speaker. A list of services can be found here.

All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Authors' contributions - required The individual contributions of each author must be specified in the Authors' contributions section. Please use authors' initials and confirm that all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

It is understood that all authors listed on submitted manuscripts have read and agreed to its content, and meet the authorship requirements as detailed by ICMJE here. In brief, contributors can be listed as authors if they: 1) have made substantial contributions to the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; AND 2) have been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 3) have given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgements section, see below. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help or writing assistance, or a head of department, who provided only general support.

Acknowledgements All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chairperson who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.

Conflict of interest and funding Authors are responsible for disclosing financial support from the industry or other conflicts of interest that might bias the interpretation of results. Please complete this form and attach to the submission.

Statistic validity If complicated statistical data are provided, the authors may be requested to submit a statement issued by a certified statistician regarding the validity of methods used.

Ethics and consent When reporting experiments on patients or animals, please indicate whether the procedures followed were approved by your local ethics committee and/or in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (

Publication fee See here.

WAIVER POLICY - please see here.

WITHDRAWAL OF MANUSCRIPT If you withdraw your manuscript after it has been peer reviewed, or after it has been typeset (but not yet published) you will be charged according to the following:

For peer review: EUR 225/USD 240 per article
For peer review and typesetting: EUR 395/USD 425 per article

Manuscript layoutWherever possible, the paper should follow the traditional layout:

Begin each section, including figure and table legends, on separate sheets; insert running page numbers.

Title page Organize the title page in the following way: 1) title of manuscript, 2) name of all author(s), 3) name of department(s) and institution(s), 4) email addresses of all authors (listed by authors’ initials) and 5) name and full postal and email address of the corresponding author who also acts as 'Guarantor' for all parts of the paper. Please also supply a photo and a short biography (max. 100 words) of each author. Please observe that for Short Communications the journal adheres to a 'double blind' review process. For such submissions the identity of the authors should therefore remain unknown before acceptance or rejection and must not include author name, affiliation and corresponding author address. The title page revealing the identity of the authors should be uploaded separately. Please see Ensuring a Blind Review

The title should be informative and accurate and at the same time trigger the interest of the reader. A short running head will be derived from the title to appear on each page of the article.

Abstract Articles must include a structured abstract of 200-300 words providing sufficient information for a reader to be able to decide whether or not to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please give 5-10 key words; avoid using the same words as in the title.

If and when the paper is accepted, please provide a photo and a short biography (50-75 words) of each author to follow the final manuscript file.

Figures Upon acceptance please supply figures/graphics/images in at least 300 dpi. For further information please see Guidelines.

If the figures/graphics/images have been taken from sources not copyrighted by the author, it is the author’s sole responsibility to secure the rights from the copyright holder to reproduce those figures/graphs/images for both worldwide print and web publication. All reproduction costs charged by the copyright holder must be borne by the author.

When figures/graphics/images are reproduced, a parenthesis should be added to the figure legend thus: (Reproduced with permission from xxx.)

Section headings Please do not number section headings. Use a maximum of three levels of headings made clear by orthographic indicators, i.e. capitals, italics, bold etc.

References Number the references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text by Arabic numerals and in parentheses, e.g. (14).

Information from papers in manuscript but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as 'unpublished observation(s)' or 'personal communication'.


  1. Lehn J-M. Toward complex matter: supramolecular chemistry and self-organization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99: 4763–8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.072065599.
  2. Hailman E, Vasselon T, Kelley M, Busse LA, Hu MC, Lichtenstein HS et al. Stimulation of macrophages and neutrophils by complexes of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14. J Immunol 1996; 156: 4384-90.
  3. Kasumov AY, Nakamae S, Cazayous M, Kawasaki T, Okahata Y. Effect of premelting on conductivity of DNA-lipid films. Res Lett Nanotechnol, vol 2009. DOI: 10.1155/2009/540257.



  1. Selvin PR, Taekjip Ha. Single molecule techniques: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: CSHL Press, 2008.
  2. Crandall BC, Lewis J, editors. Nanotechnology: research and perspectives. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1992.
  3. Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel JR, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.


  • Single molecules as electric conductors (accessed July 15, 2009)


  • Roukes ML, Ekinci KL. Apparatus and method for ultrasensitive nanoelectromechanical mass detection. US patent 6,722,200 (2004).


  • Feng XL. Ultra high frequency nanoelectromechanical systems with low noise technologies for single molecule mass sensing. PhD. thesis, California Institute of Technology (2006).